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【新刊速递】第69期 | International Organization,(新冠特刊), 2020

2021-09-03 17:46分类:医美外科 阅读:

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期刊简介

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《国际构造》(International Organization),简称“IO”,是一份经过同走评议的季刊,涵盖国际事务的周围包括:酬酢政策、国际有关、国际与比较政治经济学、坦然政策、环境争端与解决、欧洲一体化、联盟模式与搏斗、议和与冲突解决、经济发展与调整、国际资本起伏等。它成立于1947年,由剑桥大学出版社代外国际构造基金会出版,主编是乔治城大学的ErikVoeten。按照Journal Citation Reports表现,2019年其影响因子为5,在95栽国际有关期刊中排名第2。

本期编委

【编译】杨紫茵 刘瑛琛 任潇依 肖龙

【审校】刘瑛琛 肖龙 杨紫茵 任潇依 李源

【排版】高佳美

本期现在录

1. Pandemic Response as Border Politics

新冠疫情对边界政治的影响

2. The Big Reveal: COVID-19 and Globalization's Great Transformations

大揭秘:新冠疫情与全球化大变革

3. Health Diplomacy in Pandemical Times

疫情时期的卫生酬酢

4. The Politics of Pandemic Othering: Putting COVID-19 in Global and Historical Context

通走病中的他者化政治:全球与历史背景下的新冠疫情

01

新冠疫情对边界政治的影响

【题现在】Pandemic Response as Border Politics

【作者】Michael R. Kenwick,罗格斯大学政治学系助理教授;Beth A. Simmons,宾夕法尼亚大学法学院讲席教授。

【撮要】新冠疫情中足够着边界政治。几个世纪以来,封闭边境和局限外国旅者不息是各国答对全球卫生危险时行使的不息最久和最普及的手腕。这些政策的普及性不是由于面对通走病时有清晰的科学共识。相逆,本文展现了它们受到舆论和国家对边防控制已有准许的影响,又称边界导向。在新冠疫情展现前,世界周围内的边界导向已经普及上升。这栽趋势使当局更容易经历外部化来“遏制”病毒,而不是采取高成本但更有效的国内缓解措施。本文认为,面对新冠病毒,普及采取外部边界管控措施逆映了人们对当代国际相有关统中边界坦然的日好忧忧郁。在很大水平上,对边境坦然的忧忧郁已成为国内务治的一栽资源,这一发现对于设计和实走有效的公共卫生政策来说并不是一个好兆头。

Pandemics are imbued with the politics of bordering. For centuries, border closures and restrictionson foreign travelers have been the most persistent and pervasive means by which states have responded to global health crises. The ubiquity of these policies is not driven by any clear scientific consensus about their utilityin the face of myriad pandemic threats. Instead, we show they are influenced by public opinion and preexisting commitments to invest in the symbols and structures of state efforts to control their borders, a concept we callborder orientation. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, border orientation was already generally on the rise worldwide. This trend has made it convenient for governments to “contain” the virus by externalizing it, rather thantaking costly but ultimately more effective domestic mitigation measures. We argue that the pervasive use of external border controls in the face of the coronavirus reflects growing anxieties about border security in the moderninternational system. To a great extent, fears relating to border security have become a resource in domestic politics—a finding that does not bode well for designing and implementing effective public health policy.

【编译】杨紫茵

【校对】任潇依

【审核】李源

02

大揭秘:新冠疫情与全球化大变革

【题现在】The Big Reveal: COVID-19 and Globalization's Great Transformations

【作者】Kathleen R. McNamara,乔治城大学埃德蒙·A·沃尔什外事学院教授;Abraham L. Newman,乔治城大学埃德蒙·A·沃尔什外事学院教授。

【撮要】学界对后疫情世界的分析倾向于两栽极端。对一些人而言,疫情是一场能够重新洗牌的危险,它将对全球政治进走根本性的重新排序。对另一些人而言,国际秩序的基本规则能够会大致保持,世界仍将主要由日渐展现的中美两极系统驱动。作者对这两栽叙述都不悦意:前者夸大了疫情自己的因果作用,而后者则矮估了全球政治从冷战时期国家中央系统变化出来的主要方式。相逆, 秘方作者认为,疫情展现了已经在发挥作用的湮没趋势,并促使学者们在钻研全球化的方式上不再坐井不悦目天。最关键的是,作者认为,全球化不光必要被视为一场在赢家和输家之间进走分配的博弈,同时也是一场更为深切的变革性博弈。它重塑了身份、重新定义了权力与权威的渠道,并产生了新的争议性政治题目。作者从新的学术文献中获得启发,从而为思考全球化政治挑出新的理论框架。同时作者还评估了一些关键性的政策周围,在这些周围中,新冠疫情加速了全球化的变革性效答。以此,作者为后疫情时期钻研全球市场挑出了路线图,这一钻研议程也更能足够地捕捉到这些变革及其对世界政治的影响。

Analysis of the post-COVID world tends to gravitate to one of two poles. For some, the pandemicis a crisis that will reshuffle the decks, producing a fundamental reordering of global politics. For others, the basic principles of the international order are likely to remain much the same, driven largely by the emergingbipolar system between the US and China. We find both narratives dissatisfying, as the former overinterprets the causal role of the pandemic itself, while the latter underappreciates the critical ways in which global politicshave been transformed beyond the state-centered system of the Cold War. We argue instead that the pandemic exposes underlying trends already at work and forces scholars to open the aperture on how we study globalization. Mostcentrally, we contend that globalization needs to be seen not just as a distributional game of winners and losers but rather a more profoundly transformational game that reshapes identities, redefines channels of power andauthority, and generates new sites for contentious politics. We draw on emerging work to sketch out a theoretical frame for thinking about the politics of globalization, and assess some of the key policy arenas where COVID-19is accelerating the transformative effects of globalization. In so doing, we suggest a roadmap to a post-pandemic research agenda for studying global markets that more fully captures these transformations and their implicationsfor world politics.

【编译】刘瑛琛

【校对】肖龙

【审核】李源

03

疫情时期的卫生酬酢

【题现在】Health Diplomacy in Pandemical Times

【作者】Tanisha M. Fazal,明尼苏达大学教授。

【撮要】新冠疫情能够带来人们对于卫生酬酢的更众关注,这是一个很少被国际有关学者商议的话题。在回顾关于卫生酬酢的现有文献后,作者认为将各国开展卫生酬酢的现在标和做法区睁开来有助于加深吾们对各国在双边、区域或全球周围内开展卫生酬酢的理解。21世纪以来传染病爆发的新近历史外明,卫生酬酢能够脱离于全球参与。新冠肺热疫情就挑供了很众例子,从对世界卫生构造的普及指斥到日好增进的双边卫生声援和区域疫苗倡议的产生。然而,随着通走病的日好反复,考虑到进走全球性缓解和遏制的必要性,更众的区域化卫生酬酢能够造就有限。

One likely effect of the COVID-19 pandemic will be an increased focus on health diplomacy, a topicthat has rarely been taken up by international relations scholars. After reviewing existing literature on health diplomacy, I argue for the utility of distinguishing states’ aims from their practices of health diplomacyin advancing our understanding of when states engage in health diplomacy with a bilateral, regional, or global scope. The recent history of twenty-first century infectious disease outbreaks suggests a possible move away fromhealth diplomacy with global participation. COVID-19 provides numerous examples, from widespread criticism of the World Health Organization to increased bilateral health aid and the creation of a regional vaccine initiative.As pandemics become more frequent, however, more localized health diplomacy is likely to be less effective, given the necessity of global mitigation and containment.

【编译】任潇依

【校对】杨紫茵

【审核】李源

04

 通走病中的他者化政治:全球与历史背景下的新冠疫情

【题现在】The Politics of Pandemic Othering: Putting COVID-19 in Global and Historical Context

【作者】Kim Yi Dionne, 美国加州大学河滨分校政治学系副教授;Fulya Felicity Türkmen, 美国加州大学河滨分校政治学系博士生。

【撮要】当新冠疫情开起在全球周围内传播时,全世界也展现了各栽针对边缘人群的轻蔑和暴力。本文认为,在以栽族不屈等为特征的全球政治中,相通于新冠疫情的通走病加剧了受强制人群的不息边缘化。本文考察了关于以去的通走病的文献,并从历史的角度思考了通走病中的他者化和归责,以此列举了通走病的一些政治、政策、和公共卫生的后果。详细的经验哺育包括天花的爆发、第三次暗物化病、1918年西班牙流感,以及其他的当代通走病,如艾滋病、非典与埃博拉等。本文也搜集了在新冠疫情之中针对边缘人群的轻蔑和暴力的通知。本文由此吐露了疾病通走期间的他者化与归责的漫长历史,并指出了不息探究以理解这栽不息存在的通走病政治的必要。

As COVID-19 began to spread around the world, so did reports of discrimination and violence againstpeople from marginalized groups. We argue that in a global politics characterized by racialized inequality, pandemics such as COVID-19 exacerbate the marginalization of already oppressed groups. We review published researchon previous pandemics to historicize pandemic othering and blame, and enumerate some of the consequences for politics, policy, and public health. Specifically, we draw on lessons from smallpox outbreaks, the third bubonicplague, the 1918 influenza pandemic, and more recent pandemics, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and Ebola. We also compile reports to document the discrimination and violence targeting marginalized groups early in the COVID-19 pandemic.This article lays bare the continuation of a long history of othering and blame during disease outbreaks and identifies needs for further inquiry to understand the persistence of these pandemic politics.

【编译】肖龙

【校对】刘瑛琛

【审核】李源

好好学习,天天“在望”

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